METABOLISME LIPID

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METABOLISME LIPID

Metabolisme lipid atau lemak di dalam tubuh dimulai di dalam mulut dan dicampur dengan air ludah, dan dicampur dengan enzim lipase lingual yang terdapat di dalam kelenjar air liur. setelah itu lipid masuk ke dalam esofagus dan didalam esofagus lipid tidak mengalami proses Metabolisme Lipid.

Proses Metabolisme Lipid

Kemudian ke lambung, di dalam lambung dengan bantuan enzim lipase lingual dalam jumlah terbatas memulai proses hidrolisis trigliserida menjadi digliserida dan asam lemak, dan proses metabolisme lipid terbatas sebab lipase lambung hanya dapat melakukan hidrolisis dalam jumlah terbatas. Lalu masuk ke dalam usus halus, di dalam usus halus, bahan empedu dari kontong empedu mengemulsi lipid.

Enzim lipase yang berasal dari pankreas dan dinding usus halus menghidrolisis lipid atau lemak dalam bentuk emulsi menjadi digliserida, monogliserida, gliserol, dan asam lemak. Fosfolipida yang berasal dari pankreas juga menghidrolisis fosfolipid menjadi asam lemak dan lisofosfolipida. dan dari usus halus lemak yang telah mengalami proses hidrolisi alan masuk ke dalam proses metabolisme lipid.

Sebagai cadangan energi hasil metabolisme lipid, tubuh akan menyimpannya dalam bentuk simpanan lipid atau lemak yang utamanya disimpan dalam sel lemak dalam jaringan lemak tubuh. sel-sel lemak memiliki enzim khusus di permukaannya yaitu lipoprotein lipase (LPL) yang memiliki kemampuan melepaskan trigliserida dan lipoprotein, menghidrolisisnya dan meneruskan hasil hidrolisis ke dalam sel.

jika sel membutuhkan energi, enzim lipase dalam sel lemak akan menghidrolisis simpanan trigliserida menjadi gliserol dan asam lemak serta melepaskan ke dalam pembuluh darah. Karena itu untuk memperlancar hidrolisis metabolisme lipid tubuh membutuhkan karbohidrat, karena itu, jika mengonsumsi lemak dalam jumlah yang banyak sebaiknya diikuti dengan mengonsumsi karbohidrat dalam jumlah yang banyak juga.

Proses Metabolisme Lipid di dalam tubuh baik yang berasal dari karbohidrat, protein, dan lemak berfungsi untuk menghasilkan energi tubuh untuk bergerak dan memenuhi kebutuhan energi di dalam sel. karena itu semua proses metabolisme lipid tersebut, asetil Ko A memiliki peranan yang sangat besar dalam menghasilkan energi.

Metabolisme lipid merupakan proses tubuh  untuk menghasilkan energi dari asupan lemak setelah masuk menjadi sari-sari makanan dalam tubuh. Dalam memetabolisme lipid menjadi energi kita membutuhkan bantuan glukosa dari karbohidrat. lemak dalam tubuh kita akan masuk ke dalam proses metabolisme lipid atau lemak setelah melewati tahapan penyerapan, sehingga bentukan lipid yang memasuki jalur metabolisme lipid dalam bentukan trigliserida (trigliserida adalah bentuk simpanan lemak tubuh).

Dalam bentuk trigliserida, metabolisme lipid atau lemak disintesis menjadi asam lemak dan glliserol, asam lemak dan gliserol ini lah yang masuk kedalam proses metabolisme lemak membentuk energi. Asam lemak hasil sintesis lemak hanya terdiri dari pecahan 2-karbon, karena itu sel tubuh tidak dapat membentuk glukosa dari asam lemak, begitupun dengan gliserol, karena gliserol hanya merupakan 5% dari lemak.

Dengan demikian, sel tubuh tidak dapat membentuk glukosa dari metabolisme lipid. Karena tubuh tidak dapat membentuk glukosa dari lemak maka organ tubuh tertentu seperti sistem saraf tidak dapat mendapat energi dari lemak, dan karena hal itu pula proses pembakaran lipid atau lemak tubuh membutuhkan proses yang panjang, salah satunya harus membutuhkan bantuan glukosa.

 

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